About Me

Sam Taylor Parks

I am a man of many talents… mainly those talents are being a volleyball player for the TRU Men’s Volleyball Team. When I am not playing volleyball, working out, going to school, studying for school, or working; I am usually eating food and watching various Netflix shows. My top 3 Netflix shows would have to be, #1- The Office, #2- Brooklyn 99, and #3- Love, Death, and Robots. I have always enjoyed history classes, I am fascinated with any history involving the World Wars but have realized that I enjoy learning about the history of Canada because it is home.

I became interested in learning about the discrimination and racism against African Canadians because last semester I took a American history class and in it learned about slavery. After reading about how African Americans were treated in the United States I was curious to know how Canadians treated the black population. I was very sad to find out that we did not treat them very well, refugees thought Canada was a safe haven when in reality Canadians were just as bad. I am very glad that I have taken this class as I now know what has happened, all I need to do is figure out how to best change the future.


Research Topic

Discrimination has a Negative Effect on the African American and Canadian Youth in the Educational System from the beginning of the 1800’s till 2000’s and whether treatment has improved over time or if it has stayed the same.

I will be researching on discrimination against African American and Canadian people in the education system in Canada. I will be looking to see how it effected their learning and overall growth as a people. I will be looking to compare this with current times to see if time has improved relationships or if they have diminished further.


Composing a Life Story

Perspective 1


Throughout my life I have been involved in sports and athletics. Through this I have learned how to work, negotiate, lead, and be around people for long periods of time in high stress situations. When I was two years old my dad took me out and skated with me between his legs on the ice, ever since then I have had a love for skating, which then transitioned into a love for hockey. Through hockey I learned how to cooperate with other young individuals, I felt as I never fit in with the others. I did not have the same kind of money and equipment as they did and as all people compare themselves to others and judge based on appearances I felt like I was never fully accepted. I played hockey for 6 years at a high level in Kelowna, that entire time I never had a best friend or good friend, they were always just teammates to me, no more. In contrast to these feelings I had with hockey, when I started playing volleyball it wasn’t about what we were wearing or how good we were, it was more about the friendship and having to work with each other to succeed. I realized that in volleyball each individual is important, you can’t hide someone on the court, there are only six players on and at some point every one will touch the ball. After playing both of these sports at the same time I realized how much I disliked hockey, I couldn’t be myself around the guys, I never truly had fun because I was scared of sticking out and being different. Volleyball enabled me to be me, it gave me the opportunity to express who I was and through that I learned life skills such as leadership, cooperation, and having to work for everything you get. With these skills being developed I matured and began to get more opportunities such as playing for provincial teams, I had never gotten such opportunities through hockey as I realized that I was never playing to my full potential because of fear and doubt. Through volleyball I realized that to live without these fears I had to start fresh, I moved to Kamloops to play volleyball at the University and was able to be who I wanted to be from the start, because of hockey and volleyball I was able to see the best path for myself.

Perspective 2

The social norm of today’s society is that to get a good job you must go to university and get a degree, and to make good money you must get your masters and phd. These norms drive students in high school to take courses that they may not be truly interested in but realize that is their best path to the most income which people believe is the “best life possible.” I came to university for volleyball, but of course I had to take school to be eligible so therefore I am in a BA as I was unsure of the direction I wanted to take. I started in History, which then lead to taking some archaeology courses, which lead to Anthropology courses, which have now lead to Psychology. I am currently in my fourth year and am now trying to put a Psych major with a History minor together in the remaining eligible years I have as a volleyball player. Through all of this schooling I have realized that none of these are my passion, it has taken my four years of University education to realize that my passion is in trades, I am fascinated by the craft of making something. To me to make something from scratch is the greatest form of art and expressing oneself. My father is a journeyman carpenter so as a child I was always playing around with making objects out of wood, I now realize that I would love to metal work and be able to weld, heat, and change some of the strongest materials in the world. After experiencing all of this schooling my entire life I realize that I am a hands on person and need to be working with not only my brain but my hands as well, and that excites me that I have been able to figure out what I want to do. I will still get my degree because I am interested in the material I am learning and believe that I can keep growing as a person by educating myself, but I finally know what I would like to do for my career after I am done school. It is a truly great feeling and one that I have to thank all the years of high school and university to help show me that.


Research Paper Proposal

In this research paper I will be discussing how discrimination, racism, and segregation affect the development and education of youth in Canada. I will be looking at these events in the time period of the 1900s to present, and I will be doing a comparison on the treatment that Canadians had towards immigrants and minorities, comparing the past to the present.

Process Statement

I chose this topic after much browsing and research. I have taken many classes on the Indigenous people of Canada and realized that I wanted to learn and show how they and other minorities are treated in Canada. I want to have a general coverage of the discrimination, racism, and segregation that people have faced coming and living in Canada growing up through our educational system. I believe that the treatment we have given them has hurt their progress in schooling and therefore wanted to raise awareness for this. For my sources I didn’t just want to have sources about education and discrimination, I wanted to branch out and bring in examples of everyday life, minorities pushing back and saying something themselves, and giving examples of personal accounts from both sides. With this I believe that I will be able to have a strong coverage of my topic and give good insight into what I am planning on explaining through my paper. When I first began to look at this topic I personally knew about the discrimination that minorities have received in Canada from personal friends experiencing it.What I did not realize was how prevalent and radical some people are in Canada about minorities and how they are able to move to Canada and put their children in free education. Another thing that my sources have shown me is how little people actually know about how minorities are treated, schools do not educate kids about discrimination, racism, and segregation. Our school systems are failing to educate Canadian children about these major issues. After doing this research I realize how much I still need to learn, I believed that I have a good understanding of the history but I now I know that there is always more information available. I’m curious to know what is actually being done to help better educate minorities in Canada, the studies show the lack of support that they are receiving, so I am curious to research and find out whether or not Canada is truly finding ways to support these people. I also want to know if I am playing my part in helping, I try to help people when I can through volunteering but am I doing enough. I do believe that Canada is trying to help aid those who need it but with politics there is only so much that can get through. If I research something like this again I will specify more towards an individual group of minority people, focus on their history and their migration and transition in Canada. First Nation studies have always interested me and I feel a connection as they were the original people of Canada, this is their home and we took it to use, this is something that I want to research and learn about so that I understand our past to better the future.



Reynolds, Graham, and Wanda Robson. 2016. Viola Desmond’s Canada : A History of Blacks and Racial Segregation in the Promised Land. Winnipeg : Fernwood Publishing, 2016. https://ezproxy.tru.ca/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat03106a&AN=tru.a746828&site=eds-live.

The book of Viola Desmond’s Canada is about Viola Desmond, in 1946 sitting in a white only portion of a movie theatre and getting wrongfully arrested. The book speaks about the racial segregation that African-American and African-Canadian people received and the fact the most Canadians are unaware of how minorities were treated. The Government of Nova Scotia pardoned Viola Desmond 60 years later and apologized for her treatment, this book explains and educates those who read it about the treatment of African-Canadians in Canada.

Rutherdale, Myra, Kerry M. Abel, and P. Whitney Lackenbauer. 2018. Roots of Entanglement : Essays in the History of Native-Newcomer Relations. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division. https://ezproxy.tru.ca/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1691602&site=eds-live.

Roots of Entanglement offers a description of the relationship and interactions between the Indigenous people and the new comer Europeans in Canada. It talks about how the past has been perceived and how those perceptions have changed the identity of many throughout the country. In a response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s call for better understanding and respect for the history of these events and the relationship that has formed out of it.

Satzewich, Vic. 2010. Racism in Canada. Issues in Canada. Don Mills, Ont. : Oxford University Press, 2011. https://ezproxy.tru.ca/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat03106a&AN=tru.a533128&site=eds-live.

Racism in Canada by Vic Satzewich explores the complexity of racism. He speaks of how Canada may be a great place of diversity for many minorities to come and live, but there is still racism and discrimination that are not as prominent and obvious as other countries. This book talks about the argument of racism being an oversold social problem, it speaks about the balance between racism and acceptance in Canadian society.

Journal Articles

Berry, John W., and Feng Hou. “Acculturation, Discrimination and Wellbeing among Second Generation of Immigrants in Canada.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations 61 (2017): 29-39. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2017.08.003.

This study examines the acculturation, discrimination, and wellbeing of 3000 adult second generation Canadians. It talks about those who have a sense of belonging to both Canada and their own ethnic group have a much stronger sense of well being than those who have a sense of belonging only to their own ethnic backgrounds. Those who categorize themselves as belonging only to their ethnic backgrounds face much worse discrimination than those who categorize as belonging to both. Another reason for discrimination is the social and demographic factors, education, employment, and income are all major issues regarding discrimination to immigrants in Canada.  

From Our Special Correspondent. “Demand For Better Education By Canada’s Negroes.” Times, 2 Sept. 1958, p. 9. The Times Digital Archive, http://tinyurl.galegroup.com/tinyurl/8s6E67.

This newspaper article speak of the treatment of African-American People and the lack of support they are receiving from the government. Unemployment is high and the struggle to gain a solid education so that they may get higher quality jobs is almost impossible. Increasing demand for education so the quality of life can be raised for African-Americans.

Gordon, Megan, and Dawn Zinga. 2012. “Fear of Stigmatisation”: Black Canadian Youths’ Reactions to the Implementation of a Black-Focused School in Toronto. CJEAP.

There was a black-focused school created in Toronto in 2009, there has been controversy over this decision since the creation of this school. The press talks about the opinions of all the personals involved in the matter, they also have the interviews of the black youth that would be attending the school to ask for their insight. The importance of these insights give educational systems information on how best to implement learning to youth.

Juang, Linda P., Yishan Shen, Catherine L. Costigan, and Yang Hou. “Time-varying Associations of Racial Discrimination and Adjustment among Chinese-heritage Adolescents in the United States and Canada.” Development and Psychopathology 30, no. 5 (2018): 1661-678. doi:10.1017/s0954579418001128.

The aim of this study was to see if there was a connection for racial-discrimination with age, and if there was a connection with gender. The research found that there were stronger discrimination findings towards younger males, where the discrimination towards females was across their entire adolescent period. The end results show us that discrimination must be regarded to all ages and genders. Attention to this issue at a young age is of utmost importance as it can affect their entire lives.

Sahasranaman, Anand, and Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen. 2018. “Ethnicity and Wealth: The Dynamics of Dual Segregation.” PLoS ONE 13 (10): 1–22. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0204307.

The author compares Ethnicity segregation with wealth segregation. The study talks about the movement of agents, or people, into new neighbourhoods. It shows that at the beginning there is a balance, but as the affordability of the area gets worse and prices increase both ethnic and wealth segregation undergo sharp transformations but in different directions. The wealth segregation shows a large decline in the area while at the same time the ethnic segregation shows a sharp upturn, the study argues that the decrease in the wealth segregation has a direct coalition with the rise in ethnic segregation.

Sinnithamby, Thijiba, and Samantha Peters. 2010. “Where is your Sandwich” 19, no. 3 (Spring): 167-182.https://ezproxy.tru.ca/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edo&AN=51372250&site=eds-live

The authors in this article take a anti-racist feminist stand using their personal experiences from school on how the racialized part of schooling is silenced. The article is about teaching people about what is happening in schools using personal experiences so that the curriculum and teaching ways may be changed to better include everyone. In a largely white population in the high schools in Toronto, these authors are taking a personal approach to explain and educate the population.

Primary Documents

Grange, Michael. 1995. “Students Ignorant of Canada’s Racist History, Survey Indicates School System Conveying Little about Discrimination.” The Globe and Mail, September 25, 1995.

Civil Liberties Association conducted a study of about 200 students in the Metropolitan area of Toronto, Canada. The study focused on the students knowledge of the civil-rights of minorities in Canada. The study found that there is little knowledge about past events such as denying access to Canada for Jewish people during the second World War, slavery of both African American People as well as Aboriginal People, and finally the Japanese Internment Camps during the War. The school systems in Canada are not passing on this history, unabling the younger generations to learn from the past and improve on mistakes that were made.

Wellner, Lori. 1993. “Immigrants Should Pay for Education.” Calgary Herald, May 7, 1993.

Lori Wellner speaks about her unease of how easy it is for immigrants to move to Canada and put their children in the education system. According to the Department of  EMployment and Immigration there is a charge of $250 to enter the country, the Calgary Board of Education states that there is no fee to get into school. Wellner shows her concern that with the amount of immigrants we have moving into Canada so that their children can have free education that the Canadian taxpayers end up paying for not the immigrating family.

  1. “Do Indigenous Canadians Face Discrimination? More Non-Aboriginals say Yes: poll; Thirty Per-cent had Never Heard of Residential Schools.” Times Colonist, June 9, 2016.

A survey that was released by Environics Institute for Survey Research that stated the awareness that Non-Aboriginal Canadians were gaining about the challenges that aboriginals have and are facing. The study was helped by seven Aboriginal and seven Non-Aboriginal groups, 9/10 respondents from these groups stated that they believe aboriginals are often the target for discriminatory behaviour. The study also stated how roughly 30% of Canadians still do not know what the Residential Schools are, this means that there is still much that can be shared and taught about the history of Canada.


Primary Document Analysis

The article from The Globe and Mail, written by Michael Grange, focuses on the lack of education the students of Metropolitan Toronto high schools are getting about the history of Canada involving racism and discrimination in 1993 and 1994. This document reveals the stereotypes and discrimination that remains in Canada even in the late 1900s. The topic I chose focuses on discrimination, racism and segregation in the Canadian Educational System, with increased awareness of these issues progress is being made to mend the broken bonds throughout the educational system. This article is a strong representation of the problems that minorities such as African American/Canadian people, Indigenous people of Canada faced. Michael Grange interviewed Alan Borovoy, who was a lawyer and a longtime general council for the Canadian Civil Liberties Association. As a lawyer and defender of minorities Borovoy’s interview blankly stated that the school system had minimally conveyed the message and material facts of discrimination. Borovoy also stated that a lack of widespread knowledge created a significant handicap in the quest for intergroup rapport. While students knew about racism and discrimination, their access to it wasn’t from school but from radical hate groups on social media such as the Heritage Front and the Ku Klux Klan. These radical hate groups still believed that minorities should serve the superior white people, this was not acceptable for the students of Canada to know and learn about. Michael Grange was attempting to spread the knowledge from the survey released by the Canadian Civil Liberties Association. By using social media to spread awareness instead of hate to the general population, it seems that Grange attempted to allow Canadian students to realize the history of racism and discrimination that happened in Canada. Not all Canadian students had gone without this historical education.  In Kelowna British Columbia, at my high school Kelowna Senior Secondary, I had the ability to take two classes. These classes were Holocaust 12 which not only talked about the Holocaust but also about many major genocides that have transpired throughout history. The other class was First Nations 11, this class taught about the culture of aboriginal peoples mainly in the coast of British Columbia. These two classes taught me about the history of discrimination. Through my Holocaust class I learned about the role that Canada played with the discrimination against the Jewish people, we did not allow them to enter Canada when they fleed the Nazi’s in Europe, we forced them to turn and sail back. In my First Nation studies I was taught about the Residential Schools, and how the culture of the Indigenous peoples of Canada was being taken from them. I understand what happened in the past, because I had teachers who knew how important history was. I learnt about the past so myself and my fellow classmates could behave properly in the future. The only difference is that I learned this in 2015, not 1993-1994. Possibly due to this document, I was able to learn about these civil rights issues and discrimination. Stages were set in place in form of a 15 page document briefing which was presented to the Education Administer, inside were proposals aimed at making the education system better at teaching students about issues relating to civil rights and discrimination. This document being processed was a major step forward for Canadian education and could be the reason for myself receiving education about Canada’s civil right and discrimination issues. Through this primary document people realized that a change in Canada’s education system was needed, and the evidence that a change was made, was in 2015 students in British Columbia were being taught appropriate material on discrimination. I believe that Michael Grange’s idea behind this article was not to criticize the students for not knowing about the history, but to bring awareness to Canada about what happened and how we need to hold our educational system accountable to teaching their students Canadian history. In the Metropolitan Toronto area the large minority population is African Americans/Canadians. This was due to the Civil War in the United States over who would gain majority control, the Confederate or the Union. Activist’s that lived in the north organized an American Anti-Slavery Society which then created the Underground Railroad which was a secret network of activists who assisted fugitives fleeing enslavement in the southern states. For Canadian students especially in an area with such a high proportion of African American/Canadian minorities, they should know the history and how Canada helped these people. Grange talked about an issue involving minorities in the suburb Markham, in 1995 the deputy mayor of Markham complained about the amount of chinese malls going up in the city, which in turn angered the very diverse city. In 2011 the population of Markham had risen 72.3% of visible minorities. A town which faced criticism for being so diverse is now a safe haven for minorities to live in without fear of discrimination. These two documents show that in a difference of 6 years, Canada’s educational system has made improvements. Grange makes the connection with the 1995 issue in Markham saying that the controversy would be better understood by the youth in the area if they had more knowledge of the minority groups who lived in that area. All these issues come down to the matter of education, are the teachers educated enough themselves on the matters of discrimination so that they can properly teach their students? In comparison to the late 1900s, Canada has taken strides to the improvement of their education. While discrimination and civil rights issues are still relevant, they are now being talked about more openly which is enabling steps to be made to improve relationships.  


 Grange, Michael. 1995. “Students Ignorant of Canada’s Racist History, Survey Indicates School System Conveying Little about Discrimination.” The Globe and Mail, September 25, 1995.

Hewitt, Nancy A., and Steven F. Lawson. Exploring American Histories: A Survey with Sources. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2017.

Lum, Fred. 2013. “Markhams Rapid Change into Canada’s Most Diverse City.” The Globe and Mail. October 26, 2013.


Research Presentation

Discrimination of African American/Canadians in the Education System— By: Samuel Taylor-Parks


Broad: Discrimination has a negative effect on the development and education of the youth minorities in Canada from the 1800s till 2000

Focused: Discrimination has a negative effect on the African American/ Canadian youth in the educational system from the beginning of the 1800s till 2000 and whether treatment has improved over time or if it has stayed the same.

Background Information

Canada the “‘Promised Land’ a place of freedom and opportunity”

Fresh Start

Early discrimination “Jim Crow”


1816- School Act

1841– School Act Revised

1859– Separate School Act

1865– School Act (Halifax)

1883- closing of segregated schools (Halifax)

Discrimination in the Classroom

Halifax, Nova Scotia

-Limited education

-School Act 1865


-African American/ Canadian Communities


Less open discrimination

-Due to social change?

-Or lack of knowledge of our history

Solid Readings

Not Necessarily a great read but an eye opener statistically speaking

  • Grange, Michael. 1995. “Students Ignorant of Canada’s Racist History, Survey Indicates School System Conveying Little about Discrimination.” The Globe and Mail, September 25, 1995.


Reynolds, Graham, and Wanda Robson. 2016. Viola Desmond’s Canada : A History of Blacks and Racial Segregation in the Promised Land. Winnipeg : Fernwood Publishing, 2016. https://ezproxy.tru.ca/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat03106a&AN=tru.a746828&site=eds-live.

Satzewich, Vic. 2010. Racism in Canada. Issues in Canada. Don Mills, Ont. : Oxford University Press, 2011. https://ezproxy.tru.ca/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat03106a&AN=tru.a533128&site=eds-live.

From Our Special Correspondent. “Demand For Better Education By Canada’s Negroes.” Times, 2 Sept. 1958, p. 9. The Times Digital Archive, http://tinyurl.galegroup.com/tinyurl/8s6E67.

Burke, Sara Z., and Patrice Milewski. Schooling in Transition: Readings in Canadian History of Education. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012, p. 225-237.

Grange, Michael. 1995. “Students Ignorant of Canada’s Racist History, Survey Indicates School System Conveying Little about Discrimination.” The Globe and Mail, September 25, 1995.



Hidden Workers- John Bullen

Urban vs. Rural

Rural family every person in the family plays their part, even the children by doing chores around the house and farm.

Urban families only the wage-earner bring in money, the children are more of a financial burden.

Transition from Rural to Urban

People realized that the money was no longer in farming, fled to the cities and factories

Europeans came to Canadian cities in hopes of fleeing poverty and oppression.

Materialism, Consumerism, and Standardization.

All hit families hard who lived just above the poverty line.

Constant competition to find jobs to keep the family in a warm safe place.

When there was no work workers turned to their families, aka they turned to their children to help.

Child Jobs

Ages 8 and below

Cleaned home with mother when father was away at work.

Gathered coal, wood, water, raised and slaughtered livestock.

When there was sickness the children would care for their parents.

Older children would assume duties of sick or deceased parent.

If the mother had to go to work the older siblings would babysit and care for the younger siblings.

Duties  divided by sex

Girls baby sat and attended housekeeping.

Boys performed tasks outside the home.

Families who lacked children of both sexes called on the most capable and available.

Domestic necessity conquered gender stereotyping.


Some children were kept at home to work long hours, began to be called a “sweatshop”.

Subcontracts to create or fix clothing for larger companies.

Common practice in Toronto among working-class families in the 1860’s.

1896 petition from Trades and Labour Congress moved to have factories and homes inspected, found that the working conditions in factories were bad, but the working conditions in the homes were even worse.

Many workers brought unfinished materials home at night ot have the family help finish them.

Ontario Factories Act 1884 and Shops Act 1888 restricted the age and hours of child workers in industrial and commercial settings, these laws did not cover household shops as well.

Lower class areas were termed “nursery of child labour”.

The Business practice not the family practice was to blame( blame to be put on materialism, consumerism, and standardization and the competition to supply and demand, families struggled to keep up with the constant growing economy).

Home-centered industries rose up above sweatshops but were still large contributors to sacrifices that children had to make on a regular basis.


Good businessman.

10 cents a day, 1.30 a week.

Were smart salesman playing people into buying their papers.

Earnings that a newsboy could make kept some families from utter destitution.

1890- law made that if under 16 had to apply for a license to sell newspapers.

The goal of this was to clean up the streets.

To qualify for a badge the boys had to have a clean record, attend school for two hours a day, and avoid trouble.

Foster children

A child’s ability to perform tasks around the home often proved to be the decisive factor of his or her placement in a home.

Families with younger children often requested girls in age ranging from 10-13 more often than any other age.

Children’s Protection Act- provided creation of local visiting committees with authority to monitor foster homes.

The work that was given to the children was hard, tedious, and they had little security and opportunity.

All the girls were alone, vulnerable to being thrown out if not good enough, and powerless to stop it.


Latter half of 19th century children enjoyed free access to primary education.

Although most children were unable to attend due to their duties at home or on the streets.

For lower class families this is very much a reality.

“The family is an institution which industrialization shaped by moving the home from the site of the workplace”

Reflections on Age as a Category of Historical Analysis- Steven Mintz


Age categories have become more rigid, precise and uniform.

Opposing idea that categories of age are breaking down, children embrace adolescence and even adult behavior and attitudes at a young age.

Growing up faster but never seem to actually grow up at all (living in parents basements until their 30s).

Age id a concept, s chronological marker we use to measure progress through life.

It is also subjective, 20th century age has become identified with milestones, norms and expectations.

Age is linked to cognitive, emotional, and physiological stages. Organizational categories. Linked to power and legal rights as well(when they can vote, get married, legally drink).

Age can be understood as a category of analysis.

Attentiveness to class, ethnicity and gender shows how multiple definitions of age coexist in single society(different historical dates, or eras).

The issue of age in current times lies with debates over capital punishment for minors, trying youth in adults courts, access to contraceptives and abortion.

In a comparison between age and gender, both are constructs that have changed over time.

Age categories are not natural, it is imbued with cultural assumptions, meanings and values.

Assumptions about children such as immaturity irresponsibility and incomplete development.

The relationship between age groups primary aspects of social organization, organized in hierarchical.

Categories that are created have been embedded in relationships, institutional structuring, social practices.

Age and gender are rooted in biology, but are very different culturally, socially, and psychologically.

Age is a more fluid category, the variation is wider.

Gender shapes life, even in gender equality cultures, in contrast age is affected and modified by things such as class, religion, nationality, and even gender.

Biology of age has changed over time in ways biology of gender has not.

Age is much less fixed than gender, even though gender is becoming more fluid as people are becoming more open to the concept of more than two genders.


The Rhythm of Work and the Rhythm of School- Ian E. Davey

School Act of 1850

Gave legislative recognition t property assessment for school purposes, made it possible for the individual boards to introduce free schools.

The task was to get the children into the schools enough to gain an actual education.

1871 schools in virtually all cities adopted the free education and the attendance increased substantially.

The total yearly enrollment number usually greatly exaggerated the actual attendance as kids wouldn’t always show up.

Even though the numbers of children attending school were greatly exaggerated, children were still exposed to some form of education even in rural areas.

Problem for lack of attendance

Stated that since it is free education the parents are not upset or inclined to pressure their children to attend because it isn’t wasting any money

Whereas the rate-bill forces the parents to push their children to attend because it is costing them money

“Material circumstance rather than criminal negligence was the root cause of low and irregular attendance”

Also influenced by harsh climatic conditions, bad roads, sickness

The Depression

The depression hit hard, larger cities came to a standstill making it hard for the cities to keep the schools running

Kids dropped out to scavenge and help parents to keep families alive

Some dropped out because families were forced to leave the cities to look for work

Moving Work

Laborers would move from town to town looking for work.

Children were pulled and entered into new schools all the time affecting the population numbers.

Ottawa struggled with their school attendance as all the mechanics and labourers moved down south to the US for work.

Rise of industrial capitalism brought increasing irregularity of employment for skilled workers and made working similar to those of labourers.

If a ordinary workman or small farmer lost their job they were immediately thrown into poverty until conditions improved.

More children worked in the factories, tobacco, cotton were the largest employers for children which affected school attendance.

Rural areas

School attendance in rural areas was based upon the crop season.

Higher attendance in the winter as there was less work for the families.

Boys attended school more in the summer and winter than girls, overall a larger boy attendance due to seasonal change in crops whereas the girls worked more domestic jobs and were able to work continuously throughout the year.

School was not necessary for children, able to get by without it and made more money.


To keep children in school was to forgo the possibility of them contributing to the family earnings.

Adolescent work in the factories became like adolescent work in the factories, a necessity for the family.

Parents wanted to send their children to school, but the rigor and the rhythm of work made it difficult to keep them for sustained periods of time.



What I Learned

History 3510 has shown me that I must always approach things with an open mind, whether that be a new class, job, or even a conversation you may have with someone. This class taught me that Canada is a great place to live, our education is very strong and I should be privileged to be Canadian. I have never thought into depth about our education system, I have just always known that I am fortunate to have a first class education. A big eye opener for me was how traditional my teachings were, I have come to realize how conservative my upbringing was in Kelowna, not directly through my parents but the community as a whole. I realize that there are so many ways to teach and learn and I don’t think one is better than the other. This class has taught me to be willing to experience new methods of teaching and explore how to best interact with the younger generations. I am very happy that I took this class.


Great job on making it all the way to the bottom! I hope the content was worth it.

Thank you for a great semester!